Minimise speculative or unpaid work. When I was in practice we often used to do a lot of speculative work, which, although enjoyable, didn’t pay the bills, and once I had got into practice I realised I couldn’t sustain a business on speculative work- the most that I do is a free hour-long initial consultation, but after that I do a paid concept design workshop, charging £300 for a half day, £500 for a full day. The workshop establishes your value in the eyes of the client, as because they are with you, they can see what you can accomplish in that time and they can see your skill as you draw and produce different ideas. I also make sure I invoice them on the day, and send them a receipt afterwards, as, if I invoiced them afterwards, they would send be some questions or decide not to pay for a service that they thought was “brilliant.” Furthermore, for clients that are further away, so serving them is risky, I may ask for a 50% deposit upfront. Once you have established that relationship in which they have paid you for your workshop, you know they will pay you for further work.